MARTHA JANE HURD 1868-1942

 

Written 17 May 1961 by Vienna Olson Conaway, a daughter.  (Some editing has been done to include parts of a story she wrote about her father)

                Martha Jane was the 8th child born to Martha and John Hurd in Middleton, Yorkshire, England on 26 Jul 1868.  She lived in her native land until a couple months before her 8th birthday. Her mother heard the Mormon Missionaries teaching the message of the restored Gospel of Jesus Christ, which she accepted and became a member into the LDS Church in the Leeds Conference.  At that time the Church had a revolving emigration loan fund upon which the emigrating Saints could draw to help pay their fare to America.  When they liquidated their possessions, they had about three fourths of the amount it would cost to get the family to Utah and the balance was borrowed from the Church fund.  When they settled in their new home and had employment, the amount of the loan was paid back to the Church and returned to the account so others might draw on it to get their way paid to America.  So it was that the Hurd family left their native land for the New World to make a new home in Brigham City, Box Elder, Utah.

            The voyage took 12 days and they landed in New York City on 5 June 1876.  I remember mother telling about the rough trip they had and she well remembered the high mountainous waves which broke over the ship at times.  What a wonderful blessing to now be in Zion and among the saints!  The family settled in Brigham City, Box Elder, Utah and it was here that mother received her education.

            Mother grew to love the city of Brigham and the life long friendships, which she formed there.  I remember her speaking in fond recollection of people; places and events long years after the experiences had taken place.  Often she spoke of the Lawrence Tibbet family, Blackburn, Schocroft, Fosgreen and others of their acquaintances.  She had two girl friends to which she held a very strong tie.  They were Vienna Booth and Viroqua Smith.  I was given the name of Vienna and when my eldest daughter came to us, she asked that we give her the name of Viroqua.

            Sugar cane was grown in and around Brigham City and so it was that Brigham had a molasses mill.  The young folks enjoyed many a festive occasion at the mill as they used to go down there and get the "skimmings" to make candy.  The skimmings was that part of the juice of the sugar cane that boiled up into a froth at the sides of the large kettles or vats in which it was being boiled down to the right consistency for molasses.   They usually went down there in the evenings and bonfires were made to light the area round about and an enjoyable time was had playing games, singing songs and hymns and engaging in pleasant conversation.  When it was time to leave, the man in charge at the Mill portioned out the skimmings that had been gathered. The happy group wended their way homeward with their bucket or bottle of the sweet fluid, often making plans for a "Candy Pull" at a later date.  A “Candy Pull” was a fun time. When the skimmings had been prepared with the addition of butter, cream of tartar and flavoring and boiled down to the proper consistency, it was set aside in buttered plates to cool to a certain temperature. It was then taken up by two people and pulled or stretched until it became of a light shade and well blended by the process.  When it began to harden, they would roll it into long inch rolls and coil it up on the buttered plates to thoroughly cool and harden so it could be snapped up into small pieces to be eaten.  Many a pleasant evening was staged around such an occasion.

                The cultivating of silk worms was quite an enterprise during the years mother's family lived in Brigham City.  I have heard her tell of how this was carried on.  These worms were kept in large tray sort of enclosures and were fed upon the leaves of the Mulberry trees.  In the larva stage these worms were about ninety percent appetite and fed ravenously upon the tender leaves.  When they reached a certain stage in their existence, they began to spin a silk thread about themselves, which developed into an oblong oval.  When this oval enclosure or cocoon as it was called had been completely formed, it was submerged in water that was of sufficient temperature to kill the worm within.  I was just a child when mother was telling us this and I thought that such an act was most unpardonable and I asked her if there could have been a more humane way of getting the worm and the cocoon separated.  Seemingly, it had to be so handled for her reply was that if the worm stayed within for a longer period than the spinning of the cocoon required it would begin to eat its way out of the enclosure, spoiling the silk thread.  When the cocoon was dry, the silk thread was unwound, spun into thread and woven into cloth, which was dyed in many different colors.  Longwearing dresses, blouses and other garments were made from this pure silk yardage.  They also made silk sewing thread and a heavier thread for crocheting.  Mother wore a silk tie that was netted from such thread.  It was in a Mulberry shade and was beautiful done up in that almost forgotten art of netting.

                Mother's love for Brigham City, the wonderful friendships and the many pleasant occasions she experienced while living there grew stronger with the years.  In 1939 when I was living in Spokane Washington, mother, my youngest sister Virginia and her husband Christian Godlieb Bennetsen visited with us for a day or two on their way from Cardston, Alberta, Canada. They were going to Haney, British Columbia, Canada, where they were going to make a new home for themselves.  One evening we went out for a walk where there were huge trees bordering the sidewalks mother said to me, "This street with all of its lovely trees reminds me of Brigham when I was a girl and my family lived there."  She went on to tell me about other things that came into her mind of those days and one subject was that of "Peach Day" celebrations.  This was a yearly event sponsored by the people and the city.  The Brigham City area was noted for growing the best peaches in the valley.  She told me of how when this day came the main street of the city was lined with boxes of luscious tree ripened peaches arranged along the outer edge of the sidewalks.  This was proof of their boast and all comers were invited to sample the fruit to whatever extent they may desire.  Small boxes of peaches were given out to those who did not have peach trees of their own.  These pioneering people were as one unit in putting over anything that was for the best good of their community and so Peach Day was the day of days and still is to this day.

                Church activity and their social functions were the core of the community and the lives of the people.  This being the case, many wonderful friendships were formed which held fast throughout the years of their lives.

            About 1883-4 the family moved to Snowville, Box Elder, Utah.  Because of a difference of mind in religious acceptance, a division came about in the lives of the parents. So grandfather Hurd took up farming in the Morgan area near where his daughter Eliza resided, while grandmother with my mother [Martha] and the four sons went west to Snowville. Mark had married Sarah Ann Green 6 Dec 1883 and was living at or near Afton, Lincoln, Wyoming.  Mother was now in her 16th year.

Other families living in Snowville and Oneida Valley were the        Cottom, Arbon, Robbins, Andersen, Murphy, Dilley, Ealisen, Bundersen, Sparks, Nelsens, Niel, Olsen, Larkin, Bradshaw, Allen, Durbershire, Josephsen, Rown, Sorensen and Showell families.  There may have been others who I do not now recall.  Arnold Goodliffe was the bishop of the ward in Snowville.

 All of the Hurd family were musically inclined and became good help in that field of activity.  Mother's eldest brother, William, was sustained as the choir director and held that position for years. 

There were two stores in the village, one owned and operated by the Cottom family and the other one by Bishop Goodliffe and his wife Esther.  Hans Christophersen operated the blacksmith shop. The hotel and rooming house were under the management of Arnold Goodliffe.  The stone school building served the needs of the community for both school and church.  Mrs. Whittaker took care of Uncle Sam's postal service in the town.  This and about 12 or 15 homes was about the size of the town of Snowville when the Hurd family arrived there.

            The entertainment was of the general small town sort and when there was a picnic, party, dancing or a program in the offing, everyone was included.  Thus the newcomers did not find it hard to get acquainted and soon were at home in their new environment.  Mother was a good mixer, had a very good singing voice and last but not least, she was good looking and a smooth dancer.  All of this helped her in getting established in the church as well as in social life.

                The Olson family referred to above was that of Ole Mads Olson and Wego Julius was their eldest son.  At this time he was in his early twenties, was neatly clad, had a good job and was looked at as being a good mark for any young girl to aim at for her husband.  As time went on, my mother became his choice and they were married by civil rights 18 Oct 1886 and later united in Eternal marriage a month later in Logan, Utah.  They made their first home in Snowville, one block south of the main drag.  The stately trees that surrounded the home still grow but the house has long since been removed.  While they lived in this home, their first two girls, Blanche and Vera, were born.

 

Before proceeding with the story I would like to add a few things about Wego’s early childhood in Denmark.  He lived on a farm and was the oldest child.  He had 2 sisters and a younger brother.  Two of his father’s sisters had joined the church and immigrated to Zion so when the missionaries came calling they were receptive to the message and likewise joined.  Elder James N. Jensen was about to return to Utah so Wego and his sister, Matilda, made the journey to America with Elder Jensen aboard the “Minnesota” in July, 1871.  Upon arrival to Brigham City, Wego lived with Aunt Anne Kristine and Uncle Morten Mortensen and Matilda stayed with Aunt Marie and Uncle Lars Mortensen.  Meanwhile, their parents got their business affairs settled and were able to come a couple months later, arriving in Brigham City on 1 Sep 1871.  Wego’s father was a tailor by trade.  His mom was trained in nursing and was also a good seamstress.  Wego enjoyed taking care of livestock.  When the family moved to Snowville in 1878 he was in charge of getting the animals to Snowville.  The life of a cowboy seemed to be in his system.  He became a good cook on the round up wagon while working for a large ranching company.  Now back to the story!

Not long after their second child was born, father acquired a piece of land in Stone, Oneida, Idaho, a place about 4 or 5 miles north of Snowville and he moved his family up there.  He farmed in the summer and worked with the cattle companies in the winter.  The house that was on the place when they went there was of the log variety, consisting of two rooms.  The fall after the family was moved to Stone, father went to the timber and brought out enough logs to build a substantial addition to our home.  This gave us two bedrooms, a living room, a large kitchen with dining area and a pantry.  Mother was happy with the addition to the home but with a large home and her family to take care of she was a busy woman.  A son, Irven Julius was born to bless our home 25 Nov 1892.  Whenever I think of Irven being a baby a few months old, I remember one thing very clearly that happened.  Mother was very busy this day and when she had taken care of him and it was time for him to have his nap, she fixed him comfortably in a little express wagon that Blanche and I had to play with. We were to wheel him about until he went to sleep. We both found a shady place alongside the house and sat ourselves down, continuing to push the wagon back and forth so as to make sure that Irven slept on.  With this perpetual motion of the wagon he was in the sun the greater part of the time.  When mother came to see how we were doing with the baby he had a real rosy complexion from sunburn on his tender skin.  We were in "dutch" and felt badly when we saw what we had done to our brother.

            In this day and date plastered walls and ceilings were not known but rather the hewn log walls were white washed with a lime solution and unbleached factory for the ceilings which was tacked to the rafters overhead.  We were even more blessed for our living room and bedroom walls were covered with yardage called furniture calico which had a pleasing blue background overlaid with a pink floral pattern.  Mother was a very good housekeeper and chose well with the things she had to do with.  Our living room was to the northeast and mother's bedroom was to the southeast in the front part of the house.  Dark green shades were at the two windows to the east and the second one to the north in the living room.  Nottingham lace curtains were the order of the day and so our windows were trimmed in this manner.

            The fashion of wall-to-wall carpeting of today had nothing on us in that day and date but ours was of a different sort.  Ours was of the homemade variety.  Mother washed and stored away all of the worn out articles of clothing, cottonade blankets, colored table cloths or anything that could be torn up into strips to make carpet rags.  When a goodly supply of these things was on hand she would invite a number of neighbors in for a carpet rag-sewing bee.  The carpetbags were brought forth and their contents cut up and torn into the longest possible strips to be sewed together into one continuous string to be wound into balls of about two and a half pounds in size.  It took a certain number of pounds of these balls to make a yard of carpet.  When the supply of sewed carpet rags was sufficient for the amount of carpet needed, they were taken to the local weaver and made into yardage.  I can remember seeing the loom all threaded with the combination of colored warps making various widths of each color, all in readiness for the rags to be woven through in an over and under fashion. The well-mixed colors in the rags formed a pleasing contrast to the warp colors of maybe red, black and green running lengthwise of the yardage.  This carpeting was woven in about three or four foot strips.  When it was all finished, it was sewed together in one piece to fit the room it was to be used in.  The padding under the carpet was not the kinds put out by the manufacturer, but rather clean wheat straw that could be had after the fall threshing was over.  This was scattered evenly over the floor and the carpet laid on top.  The carpet was tacked to the floor on a side and one end of the floor and was stretched and tacked down along the two remaining walls.  Now the place was beginning to look home like and it was ready for the pictures to be placed upon the walls and the furniture to be set in proper place.  Mother took very good care of her furniture and we children were taught to have the same respect for it.

            A tall mahogany secretary was part of our living room furnishing.  The top half was enclosed with glass doors while that part below the writing desk was fitted with wooden doors and protected the family library upon enclosed shelves.  Upon the shelves behind the glass doors was to be seen fancy bits of bric-a-brac and family heirlooms, among which was a small white age becrackled egg cup with a light blue ring bordering the top edge.  This had a story connected with it.  Mother used to tell us of how it became a family heirloom.  When her mother, Martha Stockell Hurd, was a little girl in England she used to carry water for an elderly couple that were not able to do this chore themselves and as a token of their appreciation she was given this eggcup.  It was a thing among their wedding gifts and by now 23 May 1961 it must be at least very close to two hundred years old.  This was one of the things that I received when mother passed away and it is now in the possession of my eldest daughter Leah Viroqua Peters Campbell.

            Other pieces of furniture in the living room were a lounge, a round center table, 4 high backed cane seated chairs, a couple easy rockers and of course the well polished heater, which gave us the needed warmth in winter.  No home was complete without enlarged pictures of the grandparents being hung upon the living room walls. There was also an embroidered picture portraying a scene in the Garden of Eden with Adam and Eve partaking of the forbidden fruit; fruits and flowers of various kinds and other things associated with that Bible story.  There was another thing that as a child I used to admire very much.  It was a small banner embroidered upon a black velvet background.  It portrayed a white swan on the water among the blooming lilly pads and a feathery green tree growing at the water’s edge.  The swan was done in punch work with fine wool zepher yarn while the water, lilly pads with their white blossoms and the tree was done in oil paints.  This was a product of my grandmother Wilhelmina Niebling Olson's artistic hand while the Garden of Eden scene was done by Grandmother Martha Stockel Hurd.

          The bedroom was furnished with a high poster bed for mother's room, a dresser, bedside stand, a chair with a wardrobe to house the family clothes.  The bed in our room was the ordinary type.  Every morning the clean oat straw in the tick on our bed and the feathers in the one on mother's bed was well fluffed up and smoothed down evenly under the quilts that were folded upon the ends. This was done to make nice square edges under the white honeycomb patterned spreads.  All of the furnishings in the home were well placed so as to give the best effect. All pictures were hung at eye level, the cushions were in blending colors and everything was always neat as a pin for mother was a good house keeper and everything had to be just so.  The everyday labors of the housewife were not so easily accomplished in those days as it is now.  There were no switches to flip to bring on the lights, to set appliances into motion to lighten the work, to agitate the washer and spin the dryer nor to set the fan in motion or start the cooler on a hot day.  There was no fridge or deep freeze to take care of the family food supply.  All of this work had to be done by two untiring hands and a mind for good management.

            Each morning the lamp chimneys had to be washed and polished, the lamps filled with kerosene, the wicks given a new trim and then they were set away in their proper places ready to be lighted when the day darkened into night again.  The breakfast was cooked upon the wood range when it had become heated up from the fire which father kindled every morning.  Our toast was made before the open grate. Water was heated in a cast iron teakettle, which did not whistle a warning when it came to a boil but rather bubbled over in profusion upon the highly polished stove that had been blacked and brightly buffed the day before.  The task would now be done over again when the stove cooled down.  Left over foods must be carried away to the milk cellar to keep them cool and sweet until they were used up.  There was no such thing as picking up a loaf of bread or a pound of butter at the corner store or the market.  Mother made yeast the day before she had to mix bread. It was set in a warm place to ferment until the bread was mixed the next morning.  This yeast was made by mashing a potato from those cooked at the noon meal; adding sugar to it and pouring it when cool enough into the yeast bottle, which held a start from the mixing before.  This start fermented the whole, which in turn was what made the bread raise and become light when baked.  Sometimes mother would grate a large raw potato and make yeast by pouring boiling water over it stirring it briskly until sufficient water had been added to make a fluid in the pan about the consistency of cream.  When it was cooled to a blood heat temperature, it was poured into the yeast bottle and set in a warm place to become fermented by the start of yeast that was kept over for that purpose from the last bread mixing.  It was a laborious job to make bread.  The dough had to be kept at a certain temperature so it would raise. It had to be mixed down a couple of times so as to have that perfect texture to the bread when it was baked. It must be divided into equal portions for each loaf. Biscuits and cinnamon rolls were molded from smaller amounts of the dough and all were baked to a light golden brown.  The biscuits and rolls were generally hot for the evening meal.  Mother was a wonderful cook and always turned out excellent breads, pies and cakes, in fact everything she cooked was deserving of a first prize ribbon any time.

            Butter making was another time consuming ordeal.  Separators were not known in that day. So the milk was strained into pans and set in the cupboard in the milk cellar to stand until the cream had time to rise to the top.  It could then be skimmed off into a stone jar and kept until enough was obtained to churn into butter.  When this amount was on hand, it was stood in a warm place until it reached a certain temperature. From the stone jar it was poured into a tall stone container that was called a churn. The churn was fitted with a lid having a hole in the center encircled by a flared collar or flange to keep the cream from flowing out across the lid when the dasher was set in motion.  The dasher comprised a long broomstick handle with two pieces of board being nailed in a cross position at the lower end, in which was bored a hole in each end to help in dashing the cream into butter.  The handle of the dasher protruded through the hole in the lid and was plied up and down for the length of time that it took to bring the butter.  When the butter was in one lump in the churn, it was lifted out into a large pan where it was mixed in clear cold water to extract the greater part of the buttermilk that it might contain.  After that, the right amount of salt was added and mixed evenly into it and it was set-aside in the milk cellar to stay cool for another mixing later on.  This time it was worked over and over against the side of the pan with a wooden paddle until beads of clear moisture stood out on it.  The butter mold had been scalded with boiling water sometime before and was then placed in a bucket of cold water, ready to make pound molds out of the butter.  The one mother used was round with the print of a swan in a swimming position.  Butter dishes and molds were both round in that day and date.  Parchment paper was not to be had to wrap each pound of butter in and besides it would have been a rather difficult thing to do a good job of wrapping a rounded portion of the food supply.  Squares of dampened cheesecloth were used to cover each pound and it was set away in the milk cupboard in the cellar to keep cold for future use.

            Washday was a full day of hard work.  As soon as the breakfast was made ready, the copper boiler was filled and placed upon the stove to get hot to start the washing.  Every article had to be scrubbed clean on the board in a tub of good suds and then the white clothes were boiled in another suds to bring them to a snowy whiteness.  When this was accomplished they were lifted out of there into a tub filled with cold rinse water, wrung out of there and put through bluing rinse.  After that, some things must be starched and then they were ready to be hung out on the lines in the backyard.  What a day she was faced with when all the ironing had to be done!  I have seen mother stand and iron all day long.  Our stiffly starched white underskirts held our full skirts out much in the same fashion that modern day skirts of today are held out with multiple frills of net and lace.  There was no electric iron to do all of this but it had to be accomplished with the old fashioned sadirons that had to be heated upon the kitchen range.  Many a blister did those hot attached handles make on mother's hands, even though she used thick pads to handle them.  Mother was very fastidious in all of her work.  Everything must be done in the very best possible manner and be kept polished and buffed to a shining brightness.  The kitchen floors, doorsteps and porches must be scrubbed to a creamy pine board cleanliness at least twice a week.  The curtains at the kitchen windows were laundered often so as to be crisp and fresh all the time.  Everything she went about was done in this same manner.

            Mother was a good hand at all kinds of canning and in the late fall the shelves in the milk cellar all filled with her canning, looking like a display at a county fair, everything meriting first prize.  Each jar of a certain kind of fruit would be placed in sections, peaches, pears, apricots, plums, nectarines, greengage plums and all kinds of the various kinds of small fruits, plus a wide variety of pickles.  The one kind of pickle among the lot was what was known as Grandma's scraped cucumber pickles.  These were made of the large cukes that had to turn ripe.  These were peeled, split in half and all the pulp and seeds scraped out.  They were then packed in a stone jar and covered so many days.  This brine was drained off and cukes rinsed in clear cold water and repacked in the jar.  A solution of vinegar, just the right tartness, with whole pickling spice and sugar added, was brought to a boil and poured over the cukes while hot.  After they had stood in this solution for a length of time, it was drawn off and a little more vinegar added, brought to a boil and poured over the pickles again.  After they had been in the pickle for a time, they were nice and crisp and very good eating.

          In the fall of the year father dressed the fattened hogs.  The hams and shoulders were cured in a brine while the side bacon was all dry cured.  The lard was rendered down and used for the family needs during the following months.  This pork supply plus a quarter of beef and chicken now and again for a change, gave the family ample meat.

            Mother was always prompt with her meals, breakfast at 6, the mid-day meal on the dot of twelve and the evening meal was on the table at the strike of 6.  She was a very good manager and planned her work ahead and so was never behind in anything that was her responsibility.  All of her life she loved the twilight of each day.  When she was young, she loved to sit with us in the evening until it was fully dark enough to light the lamp.  In the evenings when father was away on a winter job, she would light a fire in the heater in the living room.  We spent the evenings listening to her tell us some stories or sing hymns and old time songs as she rocked the baby on her lap and we older ones watched the dancing reflections upon the wall and ceiling of the flame within the heater.  Mother had a lovely voice and she could sing both the lead and alto.  When I hear some of our old hymns, I still can hear her voice as she sang the same lines years ago.  As it neared our bedtime we usually had an apple after we were ready for bed and then saying our prayers, we scampered off to bed.  Things like these I love to reflect upon as they bring back the joy and happiness that I once experienced in my childhood.  When we were small mother used to play the accordion and we used to sing and dance to her accompaniment.  From these experiences I became quite proficient at clog dancing.  Father's sister Annie was living a short block away from our place and many was the evening that the two families joined together in home entertainment.  She had a large family and so it made quite an occasion for all of us.

            The sick are always with us and mother with her natural gift for nursing was able to render a great service among the people while we lived at Stone where there was a need for help with sickness in the family.  She helped with all the cases from the common cold to measles, mumps and diphtheria.  Many was the time when she helped with confinement cases and once when she was living in Hill Spring, Canada she delivered twins because the stork run a winning race with the doctor.  The doctor praised her fine service when he arrived.  Both the babies and the mother did very well.  Mother never did bring any contagious disease home for she was well versed in sterile technique and always took full precaution.  She was usually in attendance where there was a death, giving words of comfort to the bereaved and doing all last things for the dead.  When I was yet small I remember both mother and father going out to homes where there had been a death, to sit up with the dead. There were no Morgues and everything was done in the home from the time of death until the hour of the funeral.

            A second son, Ellis Lambert was born while the family was living in Stone, 15 Jul 1896.  He was one day short of being two years old when the family started for Cardston, Alberta, Canada.

This was a long move to be made with a team and wagon, a distance of some 600 miles and mother drove a gentle team on the camp wagon all that distance while father drove a four horse outfit with some household effects, food supplies and other things.  Mother was glad when the last mile was finished and we were landed safely in this new country to begin making a new home.

            Church and social life in Cardston was much the same as the family had been used to in Snowville for Cardston was just a small place and everyone was included in all of their activities.  Mother was always popular for her fine cakes at the social affairs.  The local flourmill was the burr variety and so did not put out real fine white flour and so dark bread and heavy cakes were the result from such flour with no discredit upon the cooks.  Father had brought five or six hundred pounds of fine white flour with us from Idaho and so when mother made a cake from this product, the result was gratifying to the guests at the party.  The older people used to join in the dancing as well as the younger folk.  How graceful were their movements and how light they were on their feet.  It was done with grace and not a lot of jackrabbit maneuvers such as indulged in by the young folk of today.

            When we arrived in Cardston 17 Aug 1898 places to rent were at a premium and the only thing father could find to house the family was a log house in the west end of town about two blocks from the north boundary.  By the next late spring or early summer, father had hauled sufficient logs from the timber and we were happy to move into a home of our own; which he had worked hard to make ready for us.  At first it was only two rooms but later on, two more bedrooms, a kitchen with dining area and a pantry was added on.  As soon as the first two rooms were made ready for us, father went over to Lees Creek which lay to the south of us and he carefully dug up several cottonwood trees that grew on the banks of the stream, brought them home to be transplanted in our yard.  Mother saw that they were kept watered and every one of them lived.  They grew to a mammoth size and are still giving beauty and shade around the old home to this day and date of 1961.

            Mother still went on helping with the sick here in Cardston the same as she had done in Idaho.  There are three cases where she rendered great help when sickness and death entered the homes of her neighbors.  There was a neighbor's family stricken with diphtheria one winter in Cardston.  The two eldest daughters were first taken with the malady and later on the eldest son was taken sick with the same disease.  The home was immediately placed under a rigid quarantine and the Red Coat Mounties were stationed there to see that it was maintained.  The mother, who was well along in years, did not have the strength to take care of such a situation and so the doctor interceded with the police to let someone come in and help the mother.  The next thing was to find a woman who would dare to go into the home where such a dreadful disease had taken over.  Mother was the one who came to their need and rendered help.  The two daughters died but the son, through careful nursing over the number of weeks, survived.  Mother was the only one to do all that had to be done in that home both for the living and the ones that passed on.  I do not remember how many days she was with that family before they would release her to come home. When she did get her release, I remember her coming to the door.  Father took the bathtub, plenty of good hot water and a bottle of Lysol and a full set of clean clothes out to the wood house. Mother took a bath, washed her hair in Lysol suds and put all of her clothes to soak in strong suds with plenty of disinfectant in it.  She never brought it or any other disease home to the family.  This happened with the Jenkins family and the two girls who died were Nettie and Violet.  The boy was Aaron.

            A family of Eastern Canadian extraction came to Cardston to live and as I remember them, they had two children, a boy and a girl.  They lived a block west of us on the same street.  They had no kinfolk in the town and they knew very little about taking care of the sick.  Mother had seen the doctor going up to their house, so she went in to see if there was something she could do to help.  They were so very thankful to have someone come in for the little girl was seriously ill, I think it was pneumonia that she had.  Mother had been up there that day but toward the late afternoon, Mr. Good came and asked her to come up again and he was very upset.  She lost no time in going and when she saw the child she knew that death was not far away.  She went prepared to stay the night with them if necessary and well it was that she did for the child passed away before morning and mother again had all the last things to do for the dead.  I know that those people never forgot the kindness of my mother.  They were not members of the Church but when they needed help mother was there to give assistance.

            Another time a neighbor lady was very ill. The only girl who was yet home was too young to be burdened with the care of her mother and all of the household responsibilities. Mother used to go over to bathe the patient and make her comfortable in clean white sheets and well fluffed up pillows in fresh pillowcases.  One time when she went over the mother was feeling very depressed and in a tearful mood.  It was mother's special gift to cheer people up at such times and she had not been there a half-hour until the patient was of an entirely different frame of mind.  When her bath was over, her bed nice and clean and the sick room straight, the patient expressed her gratitude for mother's kindness and told her that she felt so much better.  It was one of mother's blessings to be able to lift people from depressed moods and to give cheer and comfort to those in need.

When we were small, it was the order of the day that the hose for the family were hand knitted.  I can see my mother and Aunt Annie visiting and both knitting stockings and socks for their families so as they would be kept warm when winter came.  Mother used to sew blouses for Blanche and I, and for the boys, short knee length trousers.  It was more difficult to sew for herself; so when Grandma Olson would come to visit she usually took on such sewing.  She was a professional seamstress.

Mother always taught us to be prayerful and she was of a prayerful nature herself.  Sunday School and Primary were the places for we children and we attended Sacrament meetings along with her.  Mother was always in attendance at Relief Society and on hand to help with all of their dinners and social activities.  These are things she used to take part in when they went to live in Hill Spring, Alberta.

            Our father and his brother each took up a homestead in the Boundry district about 15 miles from Cardston.  They worked their land together and ran cattle on it and raised grain and wild hay.  They were deeded the property by the government after a certain time period.  Father's brother decided to go back to the states so they each sold out their interests in the land and father found employment as a cowhand with the Mackey Ranching Company.

Our little Canadian sister came to bless our home on the 12 April 1907 at Cardston.  She was a real joy and happiness to all of us for there had not been a baby in the home for eleven years.  She was a darling and has always been the same way through the years.  Everybody loves her.  She was given the name of Leah Virginia.  Her advent gave the girls in the family a majority for mother had only two sons.  When Virginia was four years old, father moved the family out to Hill Spring, Alberta where he had bought some land, which was being sold out by the LDS Church to its members.  The home was a three-bedroom frame building located near a large body of water known as Cochran Lake.  The town was some four or five miles distance and so it was not handy for mother to go to Relief Society and her church meetings in Cardston.

           The ground was very fertile and father and the boys did the farming on the place and raised some very good crops.  Before Virginia was of school age there was a break in the family and so mother and she went back to Cardston to live.  Their home was south and a couple of blocks east of where the old home had been.  As always it was not long until trees, shrubs and flowers and lawn made the place beautiful.

          The boys took over the farm in Hill Spring and father found work in the states working at the Reclamation camp where a canal was being constructed.  After that he worked for his brother, Charles who was living in Nevada.  Eventually he worked for the railroad in Nevada until he retired in 1940.  He drew a pension for the railroad and had a pass to travel by rail the rest of his life.

When mother's grandchildren came along she found great enjoyment with them, doing many more things for them than she had time to be doing for her own children when she had the whole of their responsibility. My children used to stay with her some times to go to school.  About this time the Church was advocating that there should be one night a week for family night in each home.  Both mother and the children looked forward to this evening of each week.  The eldest grandchild was a little younger than Virginia.   These two older ones would arrange a program to be carried out and each member was to have a part.  Virginia could play the organ to sing the church hymns chosen for the occasion.

In the spring of 1939 mother sold out her home in Cardston and moved with her daughter Virginia, who was being married, to Haney, British Columbia, Canada, to make her home.   She liked it there as the climate was much milder and the summers were more pleasant.  She made many friends in her new home and enjoyed life for the next two years until her health began to fail.  She passed away in St. Paul Hospital in Vancouver, BC on 16 Feb 1942.  Haney was in the mission field and so the missionaries came out from Vancouver to conduct the funeral.  Many of her friends that attended the service were not members of the church.  All of the Elders who came were good singers as well as good speakers and her friends were very much impressed at what they heard at her service. Her eventful life came to a close at the end of 73 years 6 months and 21 days.

           After retirement, Wego enjoyed stays with each of his children and enjoyed his grandchildren.  He had a genial, jovial nature and was welcome wherever he went.  He enjoyed good health until his last few days.  He died in his sleep 30 Aug 1949.  He is buried in Snowville next to his mother.  It should be noted that Wego and Martha never divorced but just lived separately.

                            

   Martha Jane and Wego's family:

1.  Eathel Blanche      31 Jan 1889 - 25 Jun 1976

2.  Vera Vienna          27 Apr 1890 - 12 Oct 1988

            3.  Irvin Julius            25 Nov 1892 - 21 Jun 1967

            4.  Ellis Lambert         15 Jul 1896 - 29 Jun 1978

            5.  Leah Virginia        12 Apr 1907 - 12 Jul 1994