The Life and Adventures of Our Swedish Pioneers
Johannes Pettersson (1824-1915) married Margareta Sofia Stenander (1823-1916) in Gotene on 1 November 1850.
In 1850 Johannes took employment at an estate named Torp. For his labor he was given a small farm of 2-3 acres called Friberget. (north of Varnhem) It was here that Johannes and Margareta lived out their lives and raised a family of 6 children. Johannes worked on the big farm most of the time but he would also spend time raising crops on the small farm for his family. Johannes never owned the small farm but as long as he labored for the estate owner the small farm was his to do with as he wished.
Friberget is located on the west side of Mt. Billingen about 900 feet above sea level in the Parish of Eggby This area of West Sweden was formed from inland ice thousands of years ago. Many small lakes are on the west. The rain comes off the sea from the west and the snow comes from the east. The house was located on the slope south of the forest road. The land that they farmed has since been planted in trees that have now grown tall and block the beautiful view that the Pettersson Family once enjoyed.
In that time period, Eggby and about 260 other parishes formed old Skaraborg County (lan in Swedish) Today there are 24 counties (lans) in all Sweden. Each lan has a governor making a lan much like a state in America just smaller. In present day Sweden the lan where Pettersson’s lived is now called Vastergotland. Each lan has it’s own dialect, and accent to the language, a bird and flower. Vastergotland’s bird is the crane and the flower is the heather.
The 3 oldest children were daughters, Kristina, Maria, and Augusta and the 3 youngest were sons, Sven Johan, Carl Gustav and Per August. All grew to maturity except Maria who died as a child.
Kristina moved to Vattlosa in Eggby Parish to work as a maid at the farm Hultet. A few years later she married Anders Larsson in Amfindsryd of the same parish. She had 7children, 3 daughters and 4 sons. All grew to maturity except one son who died as a young child. (See story written by Ron Fortuna)
Augusta moved to Ledsjo Parish in 1873 to a place called Kristinebo where she met her future husband, Alfred Holmstrom. He was working as a journeyman there. She moved in 1875 to Skovde parish, but returned to Kristinebo the next year. In 1877 both she and Alfred moved to Walfallet in Ledsjo Parish and there they married on 14 Mar 1878 but sadly she died the same year on 16 Jul from Scarlet fever.
At the library in Skara, Sweden a collection of history is kept of all the soldiers and families of that area. It was a requirement in Sweden that all Swedish men serve in the military for a time. The last war that Sweden fought was in 1815 but they still required this service so that the nation would be in a state of readiness to protect its citizens if a need were to arise. (Sounds much like the National Guard in America)
Sven Johan enrolled into the military on 28 Jan 1879 as a soldier with #324 at Royal Skaraborgs Regiment. His last name Johansson was so common that the military assigned him the soldier name, Walter. He was part of the Bolum Parish and served for the Anders Gunnarsgarden farm in Bjellum. About 1883 he married Augusta Wilhelmina Andersdotter from Haggum. They had a daughter, Hanna Sofia Viktoria born 11 Feb 1884 in Bolum Parish. For some reason he must have become dissatisfied with military life so he escaped to America in 1884 taking along his wife and infant daughter. They settled in Moline, Rock Island, Illinois, USA. They went by the last name of Waline in the States and Johan became John. He and Augusta had 2 more children. In the 1900 census the family lived on 17th Street. Anna was 16 and Martin was 13. Augusta was the mother of 3 children but only the 2 living at that time. Anna had been born in Sweden and Martin in Illinois.
Carl Gustaf joined the military in 1880. He served in Varnhem as a soldier at #8 Royal Vastgota Regiment at the farm Klostret Borregarden in Varnhem. His army surname became Wallin. On 21 Nov 1884 Carl married Lotta Andersdotter. Lotta was the older sister of Augusta Waline. It was because of John and Augusta that Carl met Lotta.
Per August followed his eldest brother’s example and evaded military service by escaping to America in 1887. My World Book Encyclopedia stated that as the population of Sweden grew, jobs and food were getting hard to come by so between the years of 1867-1886 about 450 thousand people left Sweden to immigrate to America. Most settled in the Midwest like the Waline’s. The government of Sweden resolved the problem by developing industry. It was in 1867 that a chemist, Alfred Nobel, invented dynamite that greatly hastened the development of mining in the country. They also worked to open more land to farming to increase the food supply.
I am told that Per August who went by August Waline never married but also lived in Moline. I found him boarding with August and Emma Larson on 4th Street. He was 35 and single in the 1900 census. HIs sister was married to August Larson’s brother Anders.
This photo is the old soldier cottage of the Carl Wallin Family in Borregarden.
Carl was the last soldier to live at this number and farm. In 1901 this military system was ended though they continued to live there until they immigrated to America.
Carl married Lotta on 21 Nov 1884. They had 11 children and seven of them grew to maturity. Their first-born son died at age nine the other 3 were babies.
In 1969 at a Wallin Family reunion held in Pocatello, Idaho Carl’s son, Carl, related the following memory. “I remember when the Army came in a time or two on maneuvers in Sweden. When they came in during the winter, they came in on skis. The other time was in the summer. They went out into the field just east of us where there were a lot of pines and woods. They had target practice and one thing and another. We three boys were always together and we went along and watched them. Pretty soon they had a fire with a great big kettle hanging over it. They filled this full of dried peas and then they cooked it and that was their meal. Of course, we used to call it arkter (??sp.) That was the Swedish word for it. We were used to eating it. We watched them eat their food. After a while, I guess, they felt sorry for us and thought we were hungry. So they sat us up around there and we ate too!
I remember that old house we had. When I grew up and got older, I always said that the house was leaning to the east. It had a little rock fence out around the yard and we had a chicken coop. It was a little one-room house with a lean-to on it.
My father liked to hunt [in the winter]. He would hunt for those big snowshoe rabbits. When he would bring them home I could never figure out how all those rabbits had their hind feet tied together. It was not until I got to Idaho many years later, and He started to hunt these big snowshoe rabbits for the winter that I found out how. He cut the sinew on one foot and stuck their feet together. And there they stood like that and he would hang them up. That was the same way they had hung in Sweden too. It was real simple.”
Missionaries from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, commonly called Mormons, came to the Pettersson home about 1895. (The church had been established in Sweden about 1853) Johannes and Margareta listened to their message. They may have sent the missionaries to share their message with Carl and his family too since church records show that Johannes, Margareta, Carl and Lotta were all baptized in Jun1898. At this time their children Helen and Elizabeth were too young for baptism. (Mormons do not baptize a person until the age of 8 years when they are considered accountable.)
Elizabeth had the following memory of that time. “When I was five years old the first missionaries came to our home. Their names were Erickson and Olsen from Logan, Utah. My folks got baptized in 1898. That was about two years after the first missionaries. My father's parents were baptized at the same time. After that the missionaries tried to tell them to come to Utah, but it didn't seem very easy because dad had been in the Army for seventeen years. He quit the Army after he joined the Church. I don't know what kind of work he was doing. Just odd jobs here and there.”
Hilma said, “I can remember Dad coming home one night. Mother had been reading aloud in the Book of Mormon. Dad listened and said, ‘Well that sounds reasonable.’ That was a pretty good explanation of what the Book of Mormon was talking about. He figured right then that it was good, of course in Sweden the worst thing they could call you was a Mormon. They all thought that was a terrible thing. We just loved it when the missionaries came
over. They were always so nice and we kids later loved them.”
The family photo probably taken about 1905 before the family began their planned emigration from Sweden. The 4 girls from left are: Hilma, Esther, Elizabeth and Helen. The boys bottom to top: Enoch, Gustaf and Carl. Because of the expense they decided to come in phases as they could afford it.
The Pettersson’s who were in their mid-70’s when they joined the church chose to stay in Sweden. A missionary loaned enough money to Carl to buy passage for him and his oldest daughter, Helen. (Phase 1)
One can only imagine the emotions experienced by the family when the day came for Helen and their dad’s departure. Helen tells us about it in this way. “We went by train to Gothenborg. We met with the missionaries until it was time for us to take the boat. We had a very nice trip over. I got so, so sick on the land before we even left. I don't know what from, but I was sure sick. That was awful! [Back] then you never thought much of being sick. If I had been over here maybe it would have been different, I don't know. When I got on the boat I felt fine.
The name of the boat that we came over on was, I believe, the Republic. I think that our trip was the last trip that our boat made. It seems as though I remember that after our trip was completed, that boat sank. We had a wonderful trip. Of course, being able to feel well on the trip helped.
There was somebody in Utah who had sent the tickets. We came in over the 4th of July and if you ever wanted to see packed trains, they were it! We got to Salt Lake City and Brother Bjork met us. After we had stayed [in Murray with Bjork’s] for two or three days we then went to Grantsville where we where supposed to stay [until we worked off our debt]” Helen stayed with the Wooley family who she said were wonderful people. Her father worked there for the rest of the summer and probably until the fall crops were harvested.
I wonder if Helen and her father had this photo taken to send back to the family in Sweden during their separation, which, lasted just under 2 years. Meanwhile back in Sweden, Lotta felt torn about leaving her elderly mother who was also losing her sight. Her mother insisted that she should go take care of her family in America. (Phase 2) Lotta and the 4 youngest children departed on 22 Mar 1907. Seven-year-old Carl related his version of that time as follows. “We had an auction sale to sell everything before we left Sweden. I don't know how many were there, but it seems like all the furniture and every thing was stuck outside. People were all around and buying everything… We went to the home of the missionaries. I don't remember where they lived. This was the last night before we left. They gave us something to eat. That was the first time I ever had silver tea, or hot water. We had been used to hot coffee and scorpers, but here it was scorpers and hot water. We thought it was kind of queer, but nevertheless, we enjoyed it. I guess we were just hungry enough to eat it.
On the ship everything was going smoothly and I was just feeling a hundred. Pretty soon my mother got sick and then my brothers and sister got sick. I had nothing to do and nobody to holler at me. I was free. What a glorious time! As far as I can remember they (my family) were sick a majority of the time on the way over here. I did a lot of things I shouldn't have done and I know that.
On one occasion everyone was on top of the deck on the ship and it was rocking back and forth a little bit. Pretty soon the wind came up and when it did I guess they ordered everyone off the deck of the ship because it really began to rock. The men had those hard derby hats then. The wind would pick up those hats and boy, they would roll like a cartwheel right across the deck and into the ocean. I was standing by the railing watching them sail out there. I decided it would be fun to try to duck a hat. So I sat on the railing and held my hand on the top and when the ship got down far enough I would reach down and see if I could duck a hat. Pretty soon no hats were coming so I turned around to see why, and there wasn't a soul left. Just about that time a sailor came by and he saw me sitting on that rail and he grabbed me off and slung me across that deck. I slid over pretty near to the stairway. He said something. I didn't know what it meant but I sure took down that hole.
To give you an idea of how rough it was, when I got down in that hole I went to my cabin because I was scared. I thought he was still after me. We had one of those old Swedish trunks. There were two bunks on one side and two bunks on the other side. I was supposed to crawl in the bottom on one side, but just as soon as I got into the little aisle there, here came this trunk. Whoosh! Down under that bunk I went and the old trunk right after me Boy! Did it give me a good lickin'. I started bawling and crying I guess, and they told me to come on out. So when the ship would turn the other way and the trunk went back out, I crawled back out into the aisle. About the time I got back out in the aisle, here came the trunk and down it squashed me. Pretty soon mother and everyone was crying and trying to get a hold of me. Nobody dared step out, but they finally got me. I guess it didn't hurt me, because I was all right.
[Another time] I was over the top of a grill and underneath it there were cooks preparing a meal. One cook was looking up at me and I was just lying there looking to see what everybody was doing. I guess he was trying to tell me to get away from there or something. I didn't pay any attention to them. Finally he got disgusted with me. I don't know what he threw at me. It was egg or dough or something. It hit me in the face and then I decided it was time to go. So I left there.
I went down to the lower deck. They were Italians down there, my father told me later. They had a long table where they all sat down to smoke their pipes. I had never seen a pipe before. Pretty soon a bell rang and they got up and I thought, Well, it looked like they were all enjoying what they were doing. I decided maybe my father would like them so I went and got a whole armful of the pipes. I walked upstairs with them and told my mother about it. She was real provoked about it and told me that I must go and take them right back. When I realized that I had done something wrong I got scared. I went to take them back and after I got out of the room where my mother was, I thought maybe the Italians would get after me. All of a sudden I got an idea! I walked quietly up to the deck and over to the rail. I got rid of them all right. My mother never did know what happened to them until quite sometime later, I told her what I had done with them.
After that we were nearing the United States. I saw another boat approaching us. It had two horses on it. My dad said that they didn't haul horses on boats, but I say they did.
When we started for Utah on the train someone was always taking care of us and telling us where to go. I remember one time they wanted us to hurry. A porter behind kept pushing us and we were already going as fast as we could. I kept looking behind to see if he was going to hit us because I thought he was after us. I guess he was just urging us to speed up a little bit. I remember the first banana that my mother bought for us when we were on the train. We didn’t peel them. We thought we were supposed to eat them peelings and all. They weren’t very good! [Mother told us] about tomato’s. She said she had seen them raised in Sweden. Over there they were raised in the house. She called them paradise apples. They gave us some tomatoes one time too and we didn’t like them either.”
It must have been a happy occasion to be together again excepting for Elizabeth and Hilma who were still in Sweden. Elizabeth was working for someone and Hilma was staying with their grandparents.
It was fortunate that one day Carl ran into a missionary from Pleasant Grove who asked him if all his family was here. When he learned that two daughters were still in Sweden he offered to loan what money was still needed to pay their passage.
The back of this photo was dated 29 Jun 1908. Hilma is seated at front left and Elizabeth is on the far right with their Petterson grandparents standing behind Elizabeth. The others may be family or friends.
(Phase 3) On 15 Nov 1907 the two sisters began their adventure as follows: ”It took us three weeks to get here. We were two days on the North Sea and we landed in Hull, England. We went from there on the train to Liverpool. That took about half a day. Then we took a boat from Liverpool. We were on the boat thirteen days and landed in Canada. Dad had bought our ticket on the ‘South Pacific’. We didn’t go with the missionaries or anyone we knew, because Dad bought the cheapest tickets he could find. We landed in Quebec or St.John, Canada.” (Lizzie)
Hilma described it this way. “We left Gothenborg on a Friday. We were supposed to leave at one o'clock but we didn't leave until six that evening. It was a beautiful evening. The North Sea was clear and still. We watched until we saw the last lights. There were two lights. One was red and one was white. We saw the red one the farthest. It was real nice that night and there was dancing. We went down to bed about twelve o'clock. Most all of the passengers did.
The next morn- ing we felt pretty good. We went up on the deck. Oh! Did we get sick! Six of we girls slept together in bunks in one room. All of us got sick except Lizzie. So we all piled back into our bunks. Lizzie, one fellow, and one girl were the only ones who didn't get sick. The girl told Lizzie that she had better come down and check on us. She also said if Lizzie did go down she probably wouldn’t be able to get back up. She checked on us and went right back up and stayed up.” Hilma also stated that is was St. John where they docked.” Now back to Lizzie’s version.
“From there we took the train on into the United States. I don't remember how many days we were on the train. They took good care of us. When we had to change trains they said, "Come on!" Those were the first words we learned. When we got to Kansas City, a porter on the train was a colored guy and he said to, "Come on!” We had never seen a Negro before. He was so-o-o-o black and with his white teeth and all---all he said was, "Come on!" I turned to Hilma and said, "We aren't going with that black guy." But we had too because he took our suitcases. He was off the train and waiting for us. Then he put us on another train.
The next stop was Denver. We knew we were getting closer. We got into the depot at three in the afternoon and had to wait until twelve that night for our next train. There was a young fellow sitting next to us and we didn't say anything to him. After a while he turned to us and said to us in Swedish, "Where are you girls going?" And, of course, we looked at each other wondering whether to answer him or not and we said, "Utah”. He wanted to know all about us and the place we had come from. He was homesick, I guess. He had only been over here just a few years. We talked to him for quite awhile. He was telling us about a show he had seen and he wanted us to go and see it with him. We didn't want to. We had been warned not to go with strangers or go any place but to just stay in the depot. A missionary had warned us about being two young girls, sixteen and seventeen, all by ourselves and we couldn’t speak a word of English. All we had on our minds was, “you better not go!" He was a stranger so we didn't go for a while. But he kept insisting. He was a religious fellow and he had seen this picture, "The Life of Christ.” He explained the picture to us and tried to tell us what it was all about. Finally we gave in because he said it was only a block and a half from the depot, and we wouldn't get lost. So we thought about it and decided we would go. We had never seen a moving picture before and didn't know what it was until we went to this one. I can only this one part. It was at the time of Moses, when a king ordered all the firstborn babies to be killed. They would pick the babies up by their feet and were going to chop their heads off. It didn't show that part on the screen but it showed up until that part. I jumped up out of my seat and gave one good big war hoop. The fellow got real embarrassed, I guess. I told him that we wanted to go back to the depot. He was nice to us and took us out of there. Maybe he was glad to get us out of there, I don't know. He took us to the depot and stayed there with us until 12 o'clock and put us on the train.
We went from Denver to Salt Lake straight through. Our ticket said we were going to Murray so they were supposed to let us off in Murray. But it was 2 o'clock in the morning and the conductor knew he couldn't let two girls off there at night because nobody would be there to pick us up. He had a hard time trying to find someone to talk to us. Finally he found a Danish fellow. He said he thought he could talk to us enough to make us understand. He told us we had to go into Salt Lake that night and the next morning at seven we could take the train back to Murray and then they would let us off. So we said all right, that is what we would do. The conductor assured us that they would take good care of us and that they wouldn't let us get lost.
We came from the western part of Salt Lake into the Rio Grande depot. There was nobody there end everything was closed up. There weren't any cars so they couldn't run you anyplace. We stayed there until morning. In the morning, the janitor came and he was a Danish fellow. Somehow, he could tell that we had just come over from Sweden. He came over and talked to us. He asked us where we were from and a few other things. Then he told us that King Oscar from Sweden had died that morning. He had heard it on the news. That was the first news we got from Sweden. We thought that it was nice of him to tell us. We knew that he was sick when we left. That date was December 8, 1907.
From there we took the train back to Murray. When we got there it was early in the morning and still dark. We looked around and no one was there to meet us. Our ticket had said Murray and now the railroad was finally through with us. I guess they figured somebody would come and get us before night. About 9 o’clock Dad came on his bicycle. Of course, we hadn't seen Dad for two or three years and things change in that time. We knew him though and were glad to see him. We walked home to the house where they were living. Mother had only been gone about nine months so that hadn't been so long. They were all excited looking for us girls. All the Swedes around there were excited over it.”
Hilma further explained that Helen had taken a streetcar to the Salt Lake depot since they weren’t sure just what time the girls would come in. She had left just 15 minutes before they got in since she had to catch the last street car to get home herself.
Hilma must have been happy to get there. She said that she hadn’t slept well on the journey because she was too nervous. She stated that she liked to stay up late and sleep in but Lizzie was just the opposite.
There is no date on this photo of Carl and Lotta. The family lived in Murray for about 8 years. [I take that to mean from 1905-1913]
The younger children attended school. Young Carl remembered, “Gus and I and my sister, Esther all got into the Arlington school in Murray. We were all in the same room. They had a division between Esther’s class and our class. Esther had started going to school back in Sweden, but I hadn’t. They had just given me a reader and I had started learning to read. Gus was always a quiet kid in school. He didn't say much but what he said he meant. The teacher would ask us some questions. We stood up and hollered across the room over to Esther and asked her what they wanted us to do. I imagine that teacher had an awful time. One time Gus hollered across to Esther and asked her how he could tell the teacher that he needed to go out to the restroom. My sister tried to tell him to sit down and behave himself. Finally he couldn't take it any longer so he just stood there in the aisle and said, “That is just too bad, this is it!!” After that every time he held up his hand the teacher said, "You go!’”
Carl worked at a smelter but he wanted to farm again. He had started buying 40 acres of ground in the Strawberry Valley. The family moved to Riverton where Carl got a job in a carpenter shop there. During this same time he had gotten a letter from Elizabeth who had married and was living in Idaho. She told them about homestead land that was to open up soon. The homestead program that the government offered gave a person an opportunity to live on 160 acres of land. There was usually the requirement to improve on the property for several years and then they could pay a small amount to own the property. 160 acres sounded like a dream come true to Carl.
The family ended up on a homestead in Idaho’s Pocatello Creek area. From young Carl and Lizzie we learn about how that went. “Father had rented a railroad car to haul his stuff. He had three horses, a cow, three boys, and himself. We weren't supposed to ride the train on the car father had rented. But we got on the car anyway, because it didn't cost any more to haul us three boys along too if no one found out. So we had to keep out of sight we rode with the cows. Every time we stopped at a depot Dad would tell us to get back out of sight. We got down and crawled way back and nobody heard anything about us. When we got to Pocatello we were in the switchyard quite awhile before we got back to the stockyard. Finally they got us over to the stockyard and we could unload our stuff. That was the first time we had a real chance to stretch our legs. Most of the time we were lying on the floor or we had crawled back into a corner so no one would see us. We were sure happy to get out.”
Elizabeth explained that their mother and the other children had stayed with Grandma Erickson (Lizzie’s in-laws) for a few days until the men could get the livestock on the property. Carl tells a bit more about that. “Dad had been up to Pocatello Creek before. Dad and I were alone we had the team and one other horse and a cow. We came to one gate and Dad said he thought sure we were supposed to go through the gate and through the field. The gate had a chain around it and was locked. So instead we went up the canyon
two and one half miles towards Buckskin Road. It was getting dark and late. We went through a yard with a house on one side and the barn on the other side. It was the Carloff's old place. There was a lot of straw there and our cow decided, I guess, because we had been leading her all day that she would lie down. So we spent the night there. The next morning we went back to that gate. Dad was sure that was the way we were supposed to have gone. I told him that I thought we should go and look at the lock. It was just a chain wrapped around and around a post. All I did was unwrap it and we went through the gate and on up to our new home. From then on all we did was work on the ranch.”
Carl and Lotta Wallin with all their grandchildren. Margaret Johnson on Carl's lap, Glen and Allen Erickson (held by Lotta), Ruth, Lucille, and Hilma Carlson. Standing behind from left are Agnes Carlson and Arla Erickson (taken about 1916)
Of the seven Wallin children who came to America all grew to maturity. By 1918 all the girls had married and started families of their own. Carl and Nick (Enoch) were living in town and working when the 1920 census was taken. Carl was a teamster for a lumber yard and Nick was apprenticing as a machinist on the railroad. Only Gus was at home with his parents. He never married due to illness. Gus had contracted tuberculosis and died i the summer that he turned 22.
John, & Augusta Waline, Lotta & Carl Wallin
Couples are reversed in this photo
One very special time was the visit of John and Augusta Waline. The back of the photo said that it had been 40 years since they had seen each other in person. If that were figured from 1884 when John and Augusta left Sweden it would be around 1924 making their ages between 61-66.
Imagine the time these brothers and sisters had catching up on each others lives, families and the good old days!
Lotta at her spinning wheel in Pocatello
Sometime after 1930 when it got to be too much work Carl and Lotta sold their homestead and bought a place in Pocatello at 282 Washington Ave. (Their granddaughter, Margaret, now owns the Pocatello property.)
They reared a large family and now had a large following of grandchildren and quite a few great grandchildren too.
In later years Lotta needed a wheel chair to get around in but it was Carl who died first 20 Jan of 1947 at age 83. They had been married for 62 years. Lotta passed away about 6 months later on 5 Aug of the same year at age 87. Both are buried in the Mountain View Cemetery at Pocatello. They had stayed true to each other and the faith that they had embraced all those years before in Sweden.
I chose the title of ‘The Life and Adventures of our Swedish Pioneers’ because a pioneer is someone who goes first or tries something new. Johannes and Margareta Pettersson, Carl and Lotta Wallin decided to accept an unfamiliar religion that rang true to their hearts. Many of their descendants still adhere to these teachings, principles and practices and feel richly blessed because of that one important decision.
Most of the photos and the 1969 Wallin reunion write up were collected from Margaret Hansen and Thelma Myler, grand daughters of Carl and Lotta Wallin. Also Arne Strang a retired librarian from Varnhem, Sweden contacted me from and on-line request that I had placed and was very helpful with information about the family in Sweden. He went out of his way to put me in touch descendants of the Pettersons who still live in the area. Ron Fortuna from England (a relative that comes through Carl’s oldest sister’s line), shared genealogy, photos and the map to make this a very nice work. Thanks to all of you and also because of Ron’s labors I can share the stories he has compiled of Kristina and Anders Larsson and other relatives. Earlier this year Ron made a trip to Sweden to meet with the family there. He has sent me some pictures of the beautiful green countryside and the relatives he met.
Keep in mind that I am not directly related to these families but I wanted to help my 89 year old step-mom compile her life story and in the process of that search and because of the above mentioned persons so much information came to me that I felt compelled to write it up so it can be enjoyed by many others. I have tried to source my information and be accurate but if you find errors or omissions please let me know. Sharon Shaw